Four Major Elements of the Strategic Management Process

Are you looking to take your business to the next level? Then, strategic management is a vital aspect that you simply cannot overlook. Four Major Elements of the Strategic Management Process Strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of strategies aimed at achieving organizational goals. It’s an essential tool for any organization seeking growth, success, and sustainability in today’s highly competitive market environment. In this blog post, we’ll dive into the basics of strategic management and explore four major elements that can help your business reach its full potential. So buckle up and get ready to learn how to strategize like a pro!

Introduction to Strategic Management

Strategic management is the process of making decisions about an organization’s overall direction and resource allocation in order to achieve its objectives. It involves setting goals, developing policies, and making decisions about how to allocate resources.

The four major elements of strategic management are:

1. Goal setting: This involves deciding what the organization wants to achieve and establishing measurable goals.

2. Policy formulation: This involves developing policies and plans to guide the organization’s activities.

3. Decision-making: This involves making decisions about how to allocate resources and implement policies.

4. Implementation and control: This involves monitoring progress towards goals and taking corrective action when necessary.

What are the Four Major Elements of Strategic Management?

The four major elements of strategic management are formulating, implementing, monitoring, and modifying.

Formulating is the first step and consists of setting objectives, analyzing the current situation, and developing a plan. Implementing is putting the plan into action and includes creating policies, procedures, and budgets. Monitoring evaluates progress and makes sure the objectives are still realistic. Modifying is necessary when goals aren’t being met or if unforeseen circumstances arise.

An effective strategic management process ensures that an organization’s mission and vision are aligned with its core values. This process also allows for opportunities to be identified and exploited while threats are minimized. The goal is to create long-term shareholder value through sustainable growth.

1. The Planning Element: Objectives, Strategies, and Policies

Strategic management is the process of making decisions about an organization’s goals and objectives and developing plans to achieve them. The four major elements of this process are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The planning element is the most important of these, as it determines what the organization’s goals and objectives will be and how they will be achieved.

The first step in the planning process is to set objectives. These are specific goals that the organization wants to achieve. They should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound. Once the objectives have been set, the next step is to develop strategies to achieve them. These are broad plans that detail how the organization will go about achieving its objectives.

Finally, policies must be developed to guide the implementation of the strategies. Policies are specific rules or guidelines that must be followed in order to achieve the desired results. They provide clarity and direction for those who are responsible for implementing the strategies.

2. The Organizing Element: Resources and Structure

In any organization, there are four basic elements of strategic management: resources, structure, environment, and functions.

Resources are the people, money, equipment, information, and materials that an organization uses to achieve its goals. They can be either physical or human.

The structure is the way in which an organization’s resources are arranged to work together. It includes the organizational chart (which shows who reports to whom), as well as the division of labor (who does what).

The environment is everything outside of the organization that can affect it. This includes customers, suppliers, competitors, government regulations, and economic conditions.

Functions are the activities that an organization carries out to achieve its goals. These include marketing, finance, production/operations, research and development, and human resources.

3. The Leading Element: Leadership, Culture, and Change

In order for an organization to be successful, it must have strong leadership that can provide a clear vision and direction for the company. Additionally, the culture of an organization plays a big role in how it functions and its ability to adapt to change. In this section, we will discuss the leading element of strategic management: leadership, culture, and change.

Leadership: Leaders are responsible for setting the direction of an organization and providing guidance to employees. They need to be able to inspire others and make tough decisions when necessary. Good leaders also create a positive work environment where employees feel motivated and valued.

Culture: The culture of an organization refers to the shared values, beliefs, and behaviors that shape how it operates. A strong culture can help an organization achieve its goals by promoting teamwork and fostering a sense of pride in employees. It can also make it easier to attract top talent and retain good workers.

Change: Change is a constant in today’s business world, and organizations must be able to adapt if they want to survive and thrive. To do this, they need leaders who are willing to take risks and embrace new ideas. They also need employees who are open to change and willing to work hard to implement it successfully.

4. Implementing the Strategy: Controlling, Evaluation, and Feedback

After you have developed your strategy, you will need to implement it. This involves putting the right people in place to carry out the tasks, allocating resources, and establishing systems and procedures. You will also need to monitor progress and review how well the strategy is working.

The key to successful implementation is an effective control. This means setting up mechanisms to track progress, identify issues, and correct course if necessary. Evaluation involves assessing whether the strategy is achieving its objectives and making adjustments where necessary. Feedback is essential to ensure that lessons learned are incorporated into future planning.

There are a number of different approaches that can be taken to control, evaluate, and feedback. The most important thing is to choose the approach that best fits your organization and your culture.

Benefits of Strategic Management

Strategic management is a process that helps organizations set goals, identify and exploit opportunities, monitor and respond to environmental threats, and make the best use of resources. It involves the formulation and implementation of plans to achieve desired outcomes.

The main benefits of strategic management are:

1. Helps organizations set clear goals.

2. Helps identify and exploit opportunities.

3. Helps respond effectively to environmental threats.

4. Makes the best use of resources.

Challenges Faced While Implementing a Strategy

There are a number of challenges faced when implementing a strategy. The first challenge is developing a clear and concise strategy. The second challenge is communicating the strategy to all members of the organization. The third challenge is ensuring that all members of the organization understand and buy into the strategy. The fourth challenge is making sure that the strategy is executed effectively.

Alternatives to the Strategic Management Process

There are a number of different ways to approach strategic management, and no single approach is right for every organization. Here are four common alternatives to the traditional strategic management process:

1. The Portfolio Approach: This approach focuses on managing a portfolio of projects, rather than a single strategic plan. Organizations using this approach typically have a portfolio management office that oversees the selection, prioritization, and execution of projects.

2. The Balanced Scorecard Approach: This approach uses a balanced scorecard to track progress toward strategic goals. The scorecard includes both financial and non-financial measures and is used to help make decisions about where to allocate resources.

3. The Business Model Canvas Approach: This approach uses a business model canvas to map out an organization’s value proposition, key partners, key activities, etc. It can be used as a tool for brainstorming new strategies or for evaluating existing ones.

4. The Lean Startup Approach: This approach emphasizes speed, experimentation, and learning in the pursuit of new growth opportunities. Startups following this approach often use agile methodology and rapid iteration to test new ideas quickly and cheaply.


The Four Major Elements of the Strategic Management Process —strategy formulation, strategy implementation, evaluation and control, and organizational learning—are all essential components for any successful business. When each element is properly addressed, companies can create a comprehensive plan that will help them reach their goals while remaining competitive in the marketplace. With careful planning and attention to detail, businesses can use these four elements as the foundation for creating an effective strategy that will lead to success.

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Author: Thamizharasu Gopalsamy
Author/ Reviewer: Thamizharasu is a renowned business coach committed to empowering entrepreneurs towards accelerated growth and success. His expertise spans business growth, sales, marketing, and human resource development. An avid reader and fitness enthusiast, he combines a holistic approach to personal well-being with professional growth. Thamizharasu aims to assist one million entrepreneurs in realizing their dreams faster than ever imagined. His insights blend innovative strategies with practical wisdom, making complex concepts accessible for business owners and aspiring entrepreneurs. Learn more about his journey and Reach him: connect@thamizharasu.com

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